All courses

IUFoST-FF-1: Food Freezing - Course One

In Course 1, Food Freezing is discussed as a Unit Operations Process. In Course 2, the entire chain of operations is addressed including calculations.

IUFoST-FF-2: Food Freezing Advanced - Course Two

IUFoST-FD-1: Introduction to Food Dehydration

The purpose of this manual is to provide a basic understanding of dehydration and drying as it is used in the food industry and in various sectors in the agriculture industry.

In Chapter 1, we will examine the reasons for drying food, and then look at the factor influencing drying. We will conclude Chapter 1 with a discussion of the effects of drying on the product.

Chapter 2 is designed to assist you in understanding the difficulty that many people have in understanding drying particularly with gathering and the organization of information with their specific drying process.

Chapter 3 is to introduce a dimensional analysis approach to problem solving in relation to the delicate calculations involved with drying food.

Chapter 4 introduces the concepts of wet basis moistures and dry basis moistures.

Term of Contents

  1. Getting Started
  2. Organizing Information
  3. Dimensional Analysis Approach to Problem Solving
  4. Wet and Dry Basis Moisture
  5. Sources of Information

 

IUFoST-FD-2: Intermediate Food Dehydration

Before beginning this work, there will be a short review to refresh the materials and concepts from the ‘Introduction to Dehydration and Drying’ course. A thorough understanding of this introductory material is essential, since the introductory material is essential, since the intermediate course will build on it.

The purpose of this manual is to provide instruction pertaining to the overall mechanism of food drying and to demonstrate how these principles can be applied to actual food drying situations.

Term of Contents

  1. Getting Started
  2. Thermal Properties in Food Materials
  3. Drying Mechanisms
  4. Drying Curves
  5. Types of Dryers
  6. Dryer Operation – Case Study
  7. Sources of Information

IUFoST-FD-3: Advanced Food Dehydration

This ‘Advanced Course in Food Dehyrdation and Drying’ is intended to be a follow-up to the ‘Introductory’ and ‘Intermediate’ Food Dehydration and Drying Courses.

A number of topics will be covered to complement those already studied in the previous two drying courses. Now that the basics of drying have hopefully been mastered, a more ‘hands-on’ approach will be taken. Case studies based on personal practical experiences have been included to illustrate the application of psychrometrics to drying.

Term of Contents

  1. Getting Started
  2. Process Control in a Drying Operations
  3. Psychrometrics
  4. Troubleshooting
  5. Summary Comments
  6. Sources of Information

IUFoST-FL-1: Food Laws - Food Policy for the Informal Sector

Developed by the South African Development Community (SADC).

Table of Contents

  1. Definition of Food Policy
  2. Status of Government Policies towards this Sector in the SADC region
  3. Development of a clear policy for the Informal Food Sector
  4. Benefits of clear policy guidelines regarding the sector
  5. Responsibilities of governments and ministries regarding policy issues
  6. Role of Non-governmental organizations
  7. Inter collaboration between regional and international organizations

 

IUFoST-FL-2: Food Laws - Regulatory Framework for the Informal Food Sector

Food Control includes all activities to ensure quality, safety and honest presentation of food. It must also protect the health and nutritional status of the population and combat fraudulent trade practices. (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1991). All countries need adequate food control programme to ensure that national food supplies are safe and of good quality.

Term of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Objectives of Food Control
  3. Elements of an Effective Food Control System
  4. Major Features of the Elements of the Food Control System
  5. Inspection Services
  6. Laboratory Services
  7. Information, Education, Communication and Training

IUFoST-FP-1: Introduction to Food Packaging

This first module has been written to provide a basic understanding of an introduction to food packaging. On completion of this introductory module, the student will be familiar with the functions and attributes of food packaging, together with the environments where packaging has to perform those functions. Subsequent modules will provide an introduction to the four major groups of food packaging materials; glass and plastics. The last module concludes with a brief consideration of closures and heat sealing.

This second module has been written to provide a basic understanding of, and introduction to, paper-based packaging materials. On completion of this module, the student will have a general appreciation of the raw materials and processes used to manufacture paper-based packaging materials, as well as the major categories of paper-based packaging materials and their use in the packaging of food.

Term of Contents

  1. Introduction to Food Packaging
  2. Paper-based Packaging

IUFoST-FP-2: Food Packaging Part Two

Module three has been written to provide a basic understanding of, and introduction to, metal packaging materials. On completion of this module, the student will have general appreciation of the raw materials and processes used to manufacture metal packaging materials, as well as the major categories of metal packaging materials and their use in packaging of food.

Module four was written to provide as a basic understanding of, and introduction to, glass packaging. On completion of this module, the student will have a general appreciation of the composition and structure plus the physical properties of glass containers. In addition, the raw materials and processes used to manufacture glass containers, as well as aspects of glass container design and glass container nomenclature will also be discussed.

Term of Contents

  1. Metal Packaging
  2. Glass Packaging

IUFoST-FP-3: Food Packaging Part Three

This fifth module has been written to provide a basic understanding of, and introduction to, plastics packaging. On completion of this module, the student will have a general appreciation of the structure and properties of the major plastic used in food packaging. In addition, the barrier properties of plastic polymer in terms of their transmission rates will also be covered.

The sixth module has been written to provide a basic understanding of, and introduction to, the methods available for sealing packages. On completion of this module, the student will have a general appreciation of the major methods used to seal packages, specifically the use of closures on glass and plastic bottles and containers, and the heat sealing of films, pouches and bags.

Term of Contents

  1. Plastic Packaging
  2. Sealing Packaging

IUFoST-FS-1: Food Safety - Food Hygiene and Basic Food Microbiology

In this fast moving, highly mobile world, international food trade and foreign travel are increasing, bringing important social and economic benefits to particularly developing countries. Eating habits too, have undergone major changes in many countries over the last two decades. Food consumption has increased due to a growing population worldwide and so have patterns of consumption. Eating out has become very popular as people want to experiment with new cooking styles, delight with new tastes and enjoy a range of products. The consumption of raw or undercooked vegetable to retain the natural taste and to preserve heat-labile nutrient is an increasing trend. This may be risky practice especially if contaminated water is used for irrigation or washing of the vegetable. Cultural practices such as consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly from infected animals, may also be a source of microbial infection.

By the end of this module, participants should be able to, explain the role of food hygiene in preventing foodborne illness due to contaminated food, explain the benefits of good food hygiene practice and the costs of poor hygiene practices, explain the different causes of foodborne illness. In addition, describe the different types of microorganisms found in food with appropriate examples, describe the structure, shape and size of bacteria with appropriate examples, explain the factors influencing growth of bacteria in food, explain the process by which bacteria reproduce and the time for multiplication, describe how microorganisms are spread and the preventative measures and lastly explain the methods used to control microbial growth.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction to Food Hygiene
  2. Types of Micro-Organisms
  3. Factors influencing microbial growth
  4. Microbial Contamination and its Control
  5. The Control of Microbial Growth

IUFoST-FS-2: Food Safety - Personal Hygiene

Most people carry some type of disease-causing organism at one time or another. Therefore food handlers have a moral and legal responsibility to observe high standard of personal cleanliness to ensure that they do not contaminate food and cause illness. Food handlers should be in good health and have clean habits to prevent the direction contamination of food.

At the end of the module, trainees should be able to explain the importance of personal hygiene in food handling, describe the sources of contamination from people, including personal clothing or habits and how risks can be eliminated, explain the importance of protective clothing and explain the risks associated with food being handled by carriers of, or sufferers from food poisoning or food-borne diseases.

Term of Contents

  1. Introduction to Personal Hygiene
  2. Contamination by the hair, nose, mouth and ears
  3. Contamination by the hands and fingernails
  4. Contamination by the skin, cuts and grazes
  5. Contamination by jewellery, perfume and smoking
  6. Protective clothing
  7. General Health and Reporting of Illness

IUFoST-FS-3: Food Safety - Foodborne Diseases

Foodborne diseases are a worldwide problem, significantly affecting peoples health with economic consequences and represent therefore an important public health problem. Numerous outbreaks of foodborne diseases attract media attention and raise consumer concern.

It is certain that the problems related to food safety will increase in the 21st century especially as several global changes including population growth, poverty, international trade in food and animal feed continue to negatively influence the safety of food and drinking water.

As most foodborne disease cases are not report, the true dimension of the problem is unknown. The World Health Organization estimates that, worldwide, ‘thousands of millions of cases of foodborne disease occur every year resulting in human suffering and economic losses. Particularly at risk are children, pregnant women, the sick, the poor and the elderly.’

By the end of this module trainees should be able to, define food borne disease, list the different types of food borne diseases, give a simple description of the signs and sympotoms of food poisioning and foodborne infection and explain the prevention methods of foodborne diseases.

Term of Contents

  1. Introduction to Foodborne Diseases
  2. Definition of Food borne disease
  3. Food Poisoning
  4. Foodborne Infections
  5. Prevention of Food borne diseases
  6. Emerging Foodborne Diseases

IUFoST-FS-4: Food Safety - Introduction to Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

By the end of this module, participants should be able to define HACCP, explain the following terms: hazard, risk and critical control point (CCP).  Participants will also be able to describe the different steps in a HACCP study, construct and use simple flow diagrams, conduct a simple hazard analysis and identify critical control points using CCP decision tree.

Term of Contents

  1. What is HACCP
  2. Explanation of Terms
  3. Hazard Analysis for the Informal Sector
  4. HACCP Principles
  5. Steps in HACCP

IUFoST-FP-01: Food Processing Overview - The Informal Food Sector

In this manual, particularly attention will be paid to street foods and to small-scale food processors. Street foods have been defined by FAO as ‘ready to eat foods and beverages prepared and / or sold by vendors in streets and other places.’ Small scale food processors refer to small businesses, usually home based, where different types of foods and other products are prepared, packed and sold to the public.

By the end of this module, participants will be able to describe the characteristics of an informal sector business, explain the growth and development of the informal food sector in SADC countries, explain the importance and contribution of the informal sector to the economy and social structure, describe the role of the informal food sector in diet, nutrition and food safety, discuss the problems commonly associated with the informal food sector and lastly, discuss the different requirements of the informal food sector.

Term of Contents

  1. Definition of Terms
  2. Characteristics of the Informal Food Sector
  3. Examples of Informal Food Sector Businesses
  4. Contribution of the Informal Food Sector
  5. Problems Associated with the Informal Sector
  6. Improving the Informal Food Sector

IUFoST-FP-02: Food Processing Overview - Food Technology

By the end of this module, participants should be able to explain the reasons for processing food, list the main processing methods that can be used to preserve food, explain the purpose of packaging, list the different types of packaging available and describe the properties of each type of packaging available.

Term of Contents

  1. Reasons for Processing Food
  2. Principles of Food Preservation
  3. Food Processing Technologies
  4. Introduction to Packaging
  5. Choice of Processing Methods for Fruits and Vegetables

IUFoST-FP-03:Food Processing Overview - Safe Food Processing

By the end of the module, participants should be able to list the reasons for preserving food, explain how growth of microorganisms occur and how this can be controlled, describe the processes recommended for ensuring food safety, explain the sanitary procedures essential when preparing food for preservation and explain the effect of processing on the nutritional properties of food.

Term of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Reasons for Preserving Food
  3. Microorganisms in Foods
  4. Food Processes and Food Safety
  5. Effects of Processing on Nutrients

 

IUFoST-FSn-1: Food Sanitation - Sanitation Waste Disposal and Pest Control

By the end of this module, participants should be able to: a) Describe the sanitary conditions in which the informal food sector operates. b) List the main diseases caused by inadequate sanitation, waste disposal and pest control. c) Describe measures to be taken to improve sanitation. d) Describe simple waste disposal measures applicable to the sector. e) Describe simple pest control measures appropriate for the sector. f) Describe how these measures could be adapted to the local context. (Module developed by SADC, the South African Development Community)

Term of Contents

  1. Definition of Terms
  2. Sanitation
  3. Waste Disposal

IUFoST-FSn-2: Food Sanitation - Cleaning and Maintenance of Equipment

It is vital that any food business is kept in a clean and hygienic condition.  Within this module we will: a) Define the following terms: cleaning, detergent, disinfection, sanitiser, sterilisation. b) State the need for, and the benefits of, cleaning and disinfection. c) State the principles of systematic cleaning and disinfection. d) Explain the procedures and methods employed in cleaning and, if necessary, disinfecting equipment, work surfaces and premises. e) Explain the importance of choosing the right equipment for the informal sector in order to ensure safety and hygiene. (Module developed by SADC, the South African Development Community)

Term of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Cleaning Definitions
  3. Reasons for Cleaning
  4. Cost Effective Cleaning
  5. Disinfection
  6. The Cleaning and Disinfection Process
  7. When to Clean?
  8. Key Points
  9. Choice Equipment
  10. Maintenance of Equipment

 

IUFoST-HN-1: Introduction to Human Nutrition

The food we eat affects our health, well-being and survival. Nutrition is the science of food, the nutrients and other health promoting non-nutrient compound found in food. The study of nutrition includes: (a) the study of the food from which nutrients come from, (b) the study of nutrients and their functions in the body, and (c) the study of the non-nutrient compounds found in food which have beneficial health properties.

Term of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Carbohydrates
  3. Proteins
  4. Lipids
  5. Minerals
  6. Vitamins
  7. Strategies for Combatting Micronutrient Deficiency
  8. Bioactive Compounds and Functional Foods
  9. Effects of Processing and Storage of Micronutrients and Bioactive Compounds
  10. Recommendations for Health Eating

IUFoST-QA-1: Quality Assurance - Improving Food Quality and Safety

This module will provide an overview of the quality attributes in foods. By the end of the module, participants should be able to: a) Give a simple definition of quality. b) Explain the importance of quality for a food product. c) Describe the physical quality characteristics of a food product. d) Describe the chemical, nutritional and microbial quality characteristics of a food product. (Module developed by SADC, the South African Development Community)

Term of Contents

  1. What is Quality?
  2. What is Quality Assurance?
  3. Elements of Effective QA System
  4. General Framework for QA System of Food Manufacturing

IUFoST-QA-2: Quality Assurance - Simple Quality Management

The aim of this module is to familiarise participants with the concept of quality management and its application to the informal food sector.  By the end of the module, participants should to be able to: a) Define quality. b) Describe the benefits of ensuring quality. c) Explain the concept of Quality Management. d) Differentiate between Quality Control and Quality Assurance. e) Describe simple techniques that can be used in the informal sector to promote quality. (Module developed by SADC, the South African Development Community)

Term of Contents

  1. What is HACCP?
  2. Explanation of Terms
  3. Hazard Analysis for the Informal Sector
  4. Steps in HACCP Analysis
  5. Group Exercise Activity

IUFoST-SL-1: Introduction to Shelf Life

By the end of this module partcipants will understand: a) Some of the challenges in defining shelf life. b) Factors that influence shelf life of foods. c) How to define food quality and shelf life. They will also have learned: a) How some of the physical mechanisms result in food spoilage. b) The major chemical reactions that cause spoilage in foods. c) The role of microorganisms in food spoilage. d) How to prevent food spoilage.

IUFoST-SL-2: Intermediate Shelf Life

The purpose of this module is to teach participants the principles of zero and first order kinetics and to use them to predict the shelf life of quality attributes. By the end of the module they will have learned: a) How to describe a zero order reaction. b) How to determine zero order rate constant. c) How to describe a first order reaction. d) How to determine a first order rate constant. e) How to predict shelf life of a food whose quality attribute is increasing or decreasing while  following zero or first order kinetics. f) Some of the key concerns in using principles of chemical kinetics to describe rate of reactions.

IUFoST-SL-3: Advanced Shelf Life

Participants in the advanced module will study the principles of shelf life in:

  • Milk and Dairy Products
  • Savory Snack Foods (Potatoe Chips)
  • Ready to Eat Cereals and Cakes
  • Fresh Seafood

IUFoST-SL-4: Shelf Life - Food Storage and Handling

By the end of this module, participants should be able to: a) Describe the extent of post harvest food losses in the SADC region. b) Describe the different types of food storage containers available. c) Describe the causes and mechanism of food storage losses. d) List the benefits of good food storage. e) Explain the pest control measures necessary to reduce food losses during storage. f) Identify for different food products, the  appropriate type of packaging needed. (Module developed by SADC, the South African Development Community)

IUFoST-TPFP: Thermal Processing of Food Products

The purpose of this module is to provide a basic understanding of thermal processing of food products.

Term of Contents

  1. Getting Started
  2. Food Safety and Food Quality
  3. Basic Sanitation for Food Processing Operations
  4. Sterilization and Pasteurization
  5. Blanching
  6. Thermal Properties of Food Products and Basic Calculations
  7. Summary